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CNC Machining Process and Key Technologies for Automotive Parts

With the rapid development of the automotive industry and the continuous improvement in manufacturing technology, the requirements for manufacturing automotive metal parts are getting higher and higher, especially in terms of machining precision, efficiency, and quality.

CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machining technology, as an advanced manufacturing technique, uses computer-controlled machine tools to automate the machining of mechanical parts, achieving high-precision machining and low-volume manufacturing of automotive parts.

Machining Process

The customized machining process of automotive metal parts is a complex systematic project, which requires comprehensive consideration and coordination in a number of aspects such as CNC programming, machine tool equipment selection, fixture design, tool selection, machining parameter setting, machining operation.

  1. CNC Programming

CNC programming is one of the key aspects of custom metal parts, its role is to convert the design drawings into machine tool machining procedures. CNC programming requires mastery of the relevant programming language and programming skills, such as G code, M code.

G-code is the most basic programming language in CNC machining, which is used to describe the machining trajectory and machining parameters, etc. G code includes a variety of motion modes and functional commands, which can realize fast positioning, inverse circular interpolation, smooth circular interpolation, mid-point arc interpolation, radius programming, and jump machining.

M-code controls various functions of the machine tool, such as turning the power on and off, starting the spindle, and changing tools. M-codes can be written and adjusted according to specific machining requirements. Typically consisting of two characters, M-codes designate specific function commands. For example, M03 starts the spindle in the forward direction, M05 stops the spindle, and M06 initiates tool changing or repositioning operations.

  1. Machine Tool Selection

Machine tool is one of the key equipment’s for CNC machining, and its selection is closely related to the machining accuracy, machining efficiency and production cost of metal parts. Different types of machine tools are suitable for different processing needs, such as milling machines, lathes, grinders and so on.

  1. Fixture Design

Fixture can fix the device of workpiece, which has an important impact on machining accuracy and workpiece quality. Fixture design needs to consider the shape of the workpiece, machining requirements, clamping force and other factors. In order to ensure machining accuracy and workpiece quality, the fixture needs to have good stability, rigidity and repeatability.

In addition, the design of the fixture also needs to take into account the ease of operation, safety, easy maintenance and other factors. There are many types of fixtures, according to the shape of the workpiece and the different processing requirements, different types of fixtures can be designed, such as flat plate fixtures, slide fixtures, elastic fixtures, vacuum adsorption fixtures and so on.

In practical application, it is necessary to select the appropriate fixture according to the specific processing requirements of the metal parts, and make reasonable design and adjustment to ensure the uniform distribution of the clamping force and the stable clamping of the workpiece, so as to achieve high-precision machining results and good quality of the workpiece.

  1. Tool Selection

Different tools are suitable for different processing needs, such as end mills, drills, turning tools and so on. In CNC metal machining, tool selection should take into account the workpiece material, machining method, cutting force and other factors. Different materials and machining methods will cause different wear and damage to the tool, so it is necessary to choose the appropriate tool material and shape to ensure the cutting effect and tool life.

In addition, the selection of tools should also take into account factors such as machining accuracy, machining efficiency and production costs. Under the premise of ensuring machining accuracy and workpiece quality, customised machining efficiency and production cost should be improved as much as possible, thus improving production efficiency and competitiveness.

Key Technologies

The key technologies in CNC machining of automotive parts are interdependent and must be integrated to achieve high-quality and efficient CNC machining of automotive parts.

  • CNC Programming: Converting design drawings into machine tool processing programs.
  • Machine Tool Selection: Different types of machine tools for various machining needs.
  • Fixture Design: Devices for securing workpieces, impacting machining precision and quality.
  • Tool Selection: Different tools for various machining needs.
  • Machining Parameter Setting: Includes cutting speed, feed rate, and cutting depth, which are crucial for machining efficiency and precision.
  • Machining Quality Inspection: Inspecting the precision and dimensions of machined parts to ensure quality.
  • Equipment Maintenance: Regular maintenance of machine tools and related equipment to ensure normal operation.